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1. Vitex negundo attenuates calpain activation and cataractogenesis in selenite models.

Rooban BN, Lija Y, Biju PG, Sasikala V, Sahasranamam V, Abraham A.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, Kerala, India.

Recent investigations have shown that phytochemical antioxidants can scavenge free radicals and prevent various diseases. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness and is associated with oxidative damage of the lens. Selenite-induced cataract in rat pups is an excellent mimic of oxidative stress-induced cataract. Selenite cataract is associated with oxidative stress, loss of calcium homeostasis, calpain activation and protein insolubilization in the lens. Our present study focuses on the isolation of flavonoids from Vitex negundo and to assess its efficacy in preventing these changes in the lens of selenite-induced cataract models. Eight-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups were used for the study and divided into four groups: Control (G I), Sodium selenite-induced (G II), Sodium selenite+quercetin treated (G III), Sodium selenite+flavonoids from Vitex negundo (FVN) (G IV). Cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of Sodium selenite (4mg/Kg body weight) on the 10th day. Treatment groups received quercetin (1.0mg/Kg body weight) and FVN (1.0mg/Kg body weight) intraperitoneally from 8th to 15th day. Cataract was visualized from the 16th day. Morphological examination of the rat lenses revealed no opacification in G I and mild opacification in G III and G IV (stage 1) whereas dense opacification in G II (stage 4-6). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, Ca(2+)ATPase, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein sulfhydryl content were significantly increased in G III and G IV compared to G II, while decreased activities of calpains, lower concentration of calcium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in G III and IV as compared to G II. Lens protein profile of water soluble proteins showed normal levels of expression in treated groups compared to that of selenite-induced rats. These results indicate good antioxidant and therapeutic potential of FVN in modulating biochemical parameters against selenite-induced cataract, which have been reported in this paper for the first time.

PMID: 19094987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Zahir AA, Elango G, Pandiyan G.

Unit of Bioactive Natural Products, P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam, 632 509, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts.

PMID: 19085005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Invasion possibility and potential effects of Rhus typhina on Beijing municipality.

Wang G, Jiang G, Yu S, Li Y, Liu H.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation Science and Environmental Changes, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Rhus typhina, an alien species introduced from North America, was identified as a main afforestation species in Beijing municipality. However, its invasiveness is still at odds. To clarify this problem, we applied the North American Screening System and the Australian Screening System to preliminarily predict its invasion possibility. Both screening systems gave the same recommendation to "reject". The geographical distribution was surveyed, with the population features of R. typhina against the native plant communities being assessed. With anthropogenic assistance, R. typhina has been scattered on almost all habitats from downtown to mountains, including roadsides, farmlands and protected areas. As a clonal shrub, R. typhina possessed a high spreading rate, varying from 6.3 m/3 years at sterile habitats to 6.7 m/3 years at fertile ones. Significantly lower species richness, individual density and diversity were observed in the R. typhina community than those of the native Vitex negundo Linn.var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. community at both sterile and fertile habitats. Continual wide plantation of R. typhina may further foster its population expansion, which helps the species to overcome spatial isolation. The fact that each root fragment can develop into a new individual makes R. typhina very difficult to be eradicated once established. From a biological point of view, we believe that R. typhina is a plant invader in Beijing. We therefore suggest the government should remove the name of R. typhina from the main tree species list in afforesting Beijing.

Publication Types: PMID: 18713419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. In vitro effect of four herbal plants on the motility of Brugia malayi microfilariae.

Sahare KN, Anandharaman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Gajalakshmi D, Goswami K, Reddy MV.

P.G. Department of Microbiology & Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, RTM, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Disease burden due to lymphatic filariasis is disproportionately high despite mass drug administration with conventional drugs. Usage of herbal drugs in traditional medicine is quite well known but largely empirical. Hence the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antifilarial effect of four herbal plants on Brugia malayi. METHODS: Motility of microfilariae of B. malayi after incubation for 48 h with aqueous/methanol extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots), Butea monosperma L. (roots and leaves), Ricinus communis L. (leaves), and Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves) was explored in the concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml for possible antifilarial effect by comparing with suitable solvent control. RESULTS: Butea monosperma leaves and roots, Vitex negundo root and Aegle marmelo leaves showed significant inhibition of motility of microfilariae as compared to controls whereas inhibitory activity demonstrated by Ricinus communis L. leaves was not significant. Antifilarial effects imparted by all these extracts were found to be a function of their relative concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for the plant extracts with significant antifilarial activity against Brugia malayi microfilariae in in vitro system have been derived to be 82, 83 and 70 ng/ml for Vitex negundo L., Butea monosperma L. and Aegle marmelos Corr. respectively. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The present study recorded significant antifilarial effect of all plant extracts studied except for Ricinus communis L. leaves and contributes to the development of database for novel drug candidates for human lymphatic filariasis.

PMID: 18653910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex negundo leaf extract against anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity.

Tandon VR, Khajuria V, Kapoor B, Kour D, Gupta S.

Post-Graduate Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Govt. Medical College Jammu (J and K), 180001 India.

Hepatoprotective (HP) activity of Vitex negundo (VN) leaf ethanolic extract was investigated against hepatotoxicity (HT) produced by administering a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid (INH)-7.5 mg/kg, rifampin (RMP)-10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide (PZA)-35 mg/kg for 35 35 days by oral route in rats. V. negundo leaf ethanolic extract was administered in three graded doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg orally, 45 min prior to anti-tubercular challenge for 35 days. HP effect of V. negundo leaf ethanolic extract was evident in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg as there was a significant decrease in TB, AST, ALT and ALP levels in comparison to control. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the V. negundo leaf ethanolic extract in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg further confirms the HP activity.

PMID: 18621114 [PubMed - in process]

6. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride.

Tasduq SA, Kaiser PJ, Gupta BD, Gupta VK, Johri RK.

Experimental Toxicology Lab, Division of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, CSIR, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India. tasduq11@gmail.com

AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxybenzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced toxicity in HuH-7 cells. METHODS: CCl(4) is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl(4) toxicity. Liver cells (HuH-7) were treated with CCl(4), and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control. RESULTS: NG protected HuH-7 cells against CCl(4) toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl(4) toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl(4) treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2). CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2E1-dependent CCl(4) toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent proteases.

Publication Types: PMID: 18595136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. alpha-Chymotrypsin inhibition studies on the lignans from Vitex negundo Linn.

Arif Lodhi M, Iqbal Choudhary M, Malik A, Ahmad S.

Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

The lignans (1-8) isolated from the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. were screened against the serine proteases alpha-chymotrypsin, thrombin and prolyl endopeptidase. Compounds 3 and 4 were found to be active only against alpha-chymotrypsin and were noncompetitive and competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, respectively. Ki values were found to be in the range 31.75-47.11 microM.

Publication Types:PMID: 18569346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of Vitex species against Culex quinquefasciatus.

Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V, Chandrasekaran M.

Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

The larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of Vitex altissima, Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia was studied against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The fatty composition was analysed by gas chromatography. The highest percentage of lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid were recorded in V. negundo. The highest percentage of linolenic acid was recorded in V. trifolia. The FAME extract of V. trifolia showed the highest larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 9.25 ppm followed by V. altissima (14.82 ppm) and V. negundo (18.64 ppm).

PMID: 18553188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Evaluation of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo L. (Family: Verbenaceae) against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and repellent activity on adult vector mosquitoes.

Karunamoorthi K, Ramanujam S, Rathinasamy R.

Unit of Vector Biology and Control, School of Environmental Health Science, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. k_karunamoorthi@yahoo.com

Petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C) extracts of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity against larval stages of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in the laboratory. Larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus were found more susceptible, with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 2.4883 and 5.1883 mg/l, respectively. Human volunteers wearing special terricot (68:32) fabrics, in the form of armbands, anklets, headbands, collar, and shoulder and pocket strips impregnated with V. negundo leaf extract were used, to test their repellent efficacy at two concentrations viz., 1.5 and 2.0 mg/cm(2) under the field conditions. At 1.5-mg/cm(2) concentration, more efficacies were found and 6-h complete protection against mosquito bites was provided. Complete protections for 8 h were found at 2.0 mg/cm(2) against mosquitoes bites. These results clearly reveal that the V. negundo leaf extract served as a potential larvicidal agent against Japanese encephalitis vector C. tritaeniorhynchus and additionally acted as a promising repellent against various adult vector mosquitoes.

PMID: 18500538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis.

Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MV, Tumane PM, Goswami K.

P G Department of Microbiology & Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, RTM, Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033, India.

In the present study, methanolic extracts of roots of Vitex negundo L. and extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo L., Ricinus communis L. and Aegle marmelos Corr. were explored for possible antifilarial effect against Brugia malayi microfilariae. It was observed that among the herbal extracts, root extract of Vitex negundo L. and leaves extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. at 100 ng/ml concentration showed complete loss of motility of microfilariae after 48 hr of incubation. Thin layer chromatography of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and flavonoids in the roots of Vitex negundo L. and coumarin in the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr.

Publication Types: PMID: 18335811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Estrogen-like activities in Vitex species from China determined by a cell based proliferation assay.

Hu Y, Zhang QY, Hou TT, Xin HL, Zheng HC, Rahman K, Qin LP.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Ethanolic extracts of four Chinese medicinally used Vitex species were selected and tested for their estrogen-like activities, using an ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cell based proliferation assay (E-screen assay) and cell cycle analysis (flow cytometry). Vitex negundo displayed the highest estrogenic-like activity, and could be useful in hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Publication Types: PMID: 18065106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Differential larvicidal efficacy of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu V.

Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 Tamil Nadu, India.

The early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory were used for larvicidal assay with leaf extracts of Vitex negundo, Vitex trifolia, Vitex peduncularis and Vitex altissima. The methanol extracts of the four species possessed varying levels of larvicidal nature. The highest larvicidal activity was found with the extract of V. trifolia (LC(50) = 41.41 ppm) followed by V. peduncularis (LC(50) = 76.28 ppm), V. altissima (LC(50) = 128.04 ppm) and V. negundo (LC(50) = 212.57 ppm).

PMID: 17701216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves.

Singh V, Dayal R, Bartley JP.

Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India.

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves growing in Dehra Dun (India) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed the presence of sixty-six compounds. Such a study has not been done earlier on the Indian oil. Thirty-five compounds, constituting 74.96% of the oil, were identified. The main compounds are viridiflorol (19.55%), beta-caryophyllene (16.59%), sabinene (12.07%), 4-terpineol (9.65%), gamma-terpinene (2.21%), caryophyllene oxide (1.75%), 1-oceten-3-ol (1.59%), and globulol (1.05%). Viridiflorol is being reported for the first time in the oil of Vitex species.

PMID: 17260284 [PubMed]

14. Vitex negundo Linn (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs.

Tandon VR, Gupta RK.

Postgraduate Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Government Medical College, Jammu , India.

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leaves of Vitex negundo (VN) have been investigated for their antiinflammatory activity in past, including its mechanism of action. However, nobody has evaluated its potential role as an adjuvant with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate interaction of ethanolic leaf extract of VN Linn with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in sub-effective doses per orally (PO) to evaluate its potential role as an adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Carrageenin induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma test in albino rats were employed to study interaction of Vitex negundo (VN) leaf extract with standard antiinflammatory drugs in sub-effective doses per orally to evaluate its potential role as an adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: The sub-effective dose of VN potentiated anti-inflammatory activity of phenlbutazone and ibuprofen significantly in carrageenin induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The potentiation of anti-inflammatory activities phenlbutazone and ibuprofen by VN indicates that it may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard antiinflammatory drugs.

PMID: 17159267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. New antifungal flavonoid glycoside from Vitex negundo.

Sathiamoorthy B, Gupta P, Kumar M, Chaturvedi AK, Shukla PK, Maurya R.

Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India.

Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesizing cells and are common part of human diet. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research. Our bioactivity guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo resulted in the isolation of new flavone glycoside (4) along with five known compounds 1-3, 5 and 6. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. The new flavone glycoside 4 and compound 5 were found to have significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans at MIC 6.25 microg/ml.

PMID: 17027268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16.Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Indian medical plants.

Umamaheswari M, AsokKumar K, Somasundaram A, Sivashanmugam T, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Siddhapudur, Coimbatore 641044, Tamil Nadu, India. umasaravanaprakash@gmail.com

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed from six species belonging to different families traditionally used for the treatment of gout and related symptoms by indigenous people of India. The aqueous, methanol-water mixture and methanolic extract of these plants were used for the experiment. Of the 18 extracts assayed, 14 extracts demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, among which 10 extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50% and IC(50) values below 100 microg/ml. The methanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis, Datura metel, Strychnos nux-vomica and Vitex negundo showed more than 50% inhibition, hence, they were screened for their in vivo hypouricaemic activity against potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricaemia in mice. Methanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis and Vitex negundo showed a significant decrease in the serum urate level (3.90+/-0.07 mg/dl, P<0.001) and (6.26+/-0.06 mg/dl, P<0.01), respectively, when compared to hyperuricaemic control (11.42+/-0.14 mg/dl). This effect is almost similar to the serum urate level of allopurinol (3.89+/-0.07 mg/dl).

Publication Types: PMID: 17014977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. In vitro screening of five local medicinal plants for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method.

Zaidan MR, Noor Rain A, Badrul AR, Adlin A, Norazah A, Zakiah I.

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur.

Medicinal plants have many traditional claims including the treatment of ailments of infectious origin. In the evaluation of traditional claims, scientific research is important. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibacterial activity in the crude extracts of some of the commonly used medicinal plants in Malaysia, Andrographis paniculata, Vitex negundo, Morinda citrifolia, Piper sarmentosum, and Centella asiatica. In this preliminary investigation, the leaves were used and the crude extracts were subjected to screening against five strains of bacteria species, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, using standard protocol of Disc Diffusion Method (DDM). The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones and MIC values. M. citrifolia, P. sarmentosum and C. asiatica methanol extract and A. paniculata (water extract) have potential antibacterial activities to both gram positive S. aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). None of the five plant extracts tested showed antibacterial activities to gram negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, except for A. paniculata and P. sarmentosum which showed activity towards P. aeruginosa. A. paniculata being the most potent at MIC of 2 g/disc. This finding forms a basis for further studies on screening of local medicinal plant extracts for antibacteria properties.

PMID: 16883283 [PubMed - in process]

18. [Toxicity and oviposition-deterrence of Vitex negundo extracts to Plutella xylostella]

[Article in Chinese]

Yuan L, Xue M, Liu Y, Wang H.

Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China. yuliyuji@163.com

This paper studied the toxicity of dichloromethane-petroleum ether-and methanol extracts from Vitex negundo seed and leaf to the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Plutella xylostella, and the oviposition-deterrence effects of these extracts to P. xylostella adults. The results indicated that among the 6 extracts, dichloromethane extract from seed had the highest toxicity to the 2nd and 4th instar larvae, followed by dichloromethane extract from leaf, and methanol extract from leaf had the lowest toxicity. The toxicity of dichloromethane extract from seed to the 2nd and 4th instar larvae was as 2.62 and 3.09 times as that of methanol extract from leaf, respectively, and the toxicity of dichloromethane extract from seed to the 4th instar larvae was as 0.73 times as that of phoxim. The methanol extract from leaf and the dichloromethane extract from seed had higher oviposition-deterrence to P. xylostella adults. At the concentration of 4 000 mg x L(-1), they had a longer residual efficacy, with the oviposition-deterrence ratio being 60.6% and 55.2% after treated for 24 h, and 50.9% and 46.1% after treated for 72 h, respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 16836104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19.[Technology of extraction of essential oil from leaves of Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. by supercritical CO2 apparatus]

[Article in Chinese]

Xie J, Sun B, Zheng F, Yu M.

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100037.

By the designation of mono-factor experiments and orthogonal multifactor experiments, influences of extraction temperature, extraction pressure, CO2 flow rate and extraction times on the yield of oil from the leaves of Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. in the supercritical CO2 extraction process were investigated. The obtained optimal extraction technology was: the extraction pressure: 22 MPa; the extraction temperature: 45 degrees C; the CO2 flow rate: 25 L/h and the extraction time: 3h. The oil yield on the above supercritical CO2 extraction conditions was 3.22%.

Publication Types: PMID: 16568668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Behavioural responses and changes in biology of rice leaffolder following treatment with a combination of bacterial toxins and botanical insecticides.

Nathan SS, Kalaivani K, Murugan K.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju City, Chonbuk 561 756, Republic of Korea. senthilkalaidr@hotmail.com

Ingestion of the bacterial toxins Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) sub sp kurstaki, neem seed kernel extract and Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales:Verbenaceae) leaf extract to the rice leaffolder (RLF), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), resulted in altered leaf-folding behaviour and biology. In laboratory experiments, treatment with plant extracts and bacterial toxins suppressed leaf folding behaviour of C. medinalis. Larvae fed lower doses moulted into progressive instars, but in the late fourth to early fifth instars, spinning behaviour completely stopped, feeding was reduced and larvae regurgitated a sticky, semisolid substance that occluded the tunnel in which the pupae were formed. With the combination of Btk and botanicals, average leaf consumption was decreased by a factor of two even at reduced concentrations when compared with controls. Duration of larval and pupal stages, adult longevity and fecundity were more affected by treatment with the combination of bacterial toxins and both botanicals than by the treatment with the bacterial toxins or botanicals individually. All larvae died in the treatment of bacterial toxins and both botanicals combined.

PMID: 16524618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Tyrosinase inhibitory lignans from the methanol extract of the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. and their structure-activity relationship.

Azhar-Ul-Haq, Malik A, Khan MT, Anwar-Ul-Haq, Khan SB, Ahmad A, Choudhary MI.

International Center for Chemical Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of Vitex negundo afforded eight lignans; negundin A 1, negundin B 2, 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaledehyde 3, vitrofolal E 4, (+)-lyoniresinol 5, (+)-lyoniresinol-3alpha-O-beta-d-glucoside 6, (+)-(-)-pinoresinol 7, and (+)-diasyringaresinol 8. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analysis and also by comparing experimental data with literature data. The tyrosinase inhibitory potency of these compounds has been evaluated and attempts to justify their structure-activity relationships have been made in the present work. The compound 5 was found to be the most potent (IC(50)=3.21 microM) while other compounds demonstrated moderate to potent inhibitions. It was found that the substitution of functional group(s) at C-2 and C-3 positions and the presence of the -CH(2)OH group plays a vital role in the potency of the compounds. The compound 5 can act as a potential lead molecule to develop new drugs for the treatment of hyperpigmentation associated with the high production of melanocytes.

Publication Types: PMID: 16492528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. [Interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation]

[Article in Chinese]

Hu L, Yan B, Liu Q, Zhu J.

Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China. hull@iae.ac.cn

Based upon 2 x 2 contingency table, chi2 test and association coefficient were used to determine the interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation, and to analyze the restoration degree and the stability of southern highland vegetations originated from plantation. The Qianyanzhou in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province, a typical sample of southern highland plantation, was chosen to make the study. The results showed that both in shrub layer and in herb layer, species pair with chi2 reaching significant level (P <0.05) was few in number. In shrub layer, 12 species pairs' association was highly significant (P < 0.01), 19 pairs' was significant (P < 0.05), and other 200 pairs' was nonsignificant, while in herb layer, 11 pairs' was highly significant, 11 pairs' was significant and other 83 pairs' was nonsignificant. According to interspecific association and correlation, shrub layer was divided into two species groups: Group I . Adinandra bockiana, Syzygiumn grijsii, Vaccinium bracteatunm, Ilex aculeolata, Smilax ferox, Eurya muricata and Group II . Lespedeza davidii, Serissa serissoides, Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. Many species in Group I had a significantly negative association with the species in Group II, and dominant species always played a key role in the relationships among species. The three dominant species in herb layer, Wooduardia japonica, Dryopteris atrata and Adiantun flabellulaturn, had a highly significant positive correlation between each other, and moreover, had a significant or highly significant positive association with many other herbaceous species. Similarily, dominant species in shrub layer played a key role on the interspecific association in the two species groups. The ratios of positive and negative association indicating the species compositions of the two layers were fluctuating, which was 125/106 in shrub layer and 42/63 in herb layer. Several shortcomings of interspecific association method were pointed out, with some proposals put forward.

Publication Types: PMID: 16471332 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the botanical garden in Beijing.

Liu YJ, Ding H, Zhu YG.

Beijing Centre for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089, China. liuyanju@hotmail.com

The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory (BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden (BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni, and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index (MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes: strongly accumulated (SA or grade I), moderately accumulated (MA or grade II), intermediately accumulated (IA or grade III), and weakly accumulated (WA or grade IV). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza tomentosa.

Publication Types: PMID: 16295909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants.

Villaseñor IM, Lamadrid MR.

Natural Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines. irene.villasenor@up.edu.ph

Validation of the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Artemisia vulgaris Linn. (Compositae), Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae), Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae), and Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae); stems of Nopalea cochinellifera (Linn.) Salm-Dyck (Cactaceae); roots of Imperata cylindrica Beauv. (Gramineae); dried bark of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) as anti-diabetic agents using the oral glucose tolerance test showed that only the bark of Syzygium cumini and the leaves of Vitex negundo and Eucalyptus tereticornis exhibited anti-hyperglycemic activities when fed simultaneously with glucose. At the same dosages of 5 mg/20 g mouse, Syzygium cumini-treated mice showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels (BGLs) at 30 min (alpha=0.10) and from 45 min onwards at alpha=0.05. Vitex negundo exhibited greater anti-hyperglycemic activity than Eucalyptus tereticornis. Both showed a significant decrease in BGLs at 60 min but at alpha=0.05 for Vitex negundo and at alpha=0.07 for Eucalyptus tereticornis. There was no significant lowering in BGLs for Imperata cylindrica and Solanum nigrum while there was even an increase in BGLs for Nopalea cochinellifera and Artemisia vulgaris.

Publication Types:PMID: 16253452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo.

Tandon VR, Gupta RK.

Post Graduate Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Govt. Medical College, Jammu 180 001. dr_vishaltandon@yahoo.com

Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats and pentylenetetarazole (PTZ) induced seizures in albino mice were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanolic leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o) in both the experimental models and the effects were compared with diphenylhydantoin in MES method and valporic acid in PTZ induced seizures method as standard control respectively. The Vitex-negundo in the doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o) did not show protection against MES to any significant extent but significant post-ictal depression was observed in the dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight in comparison to control. However, sub-protective dose of test drug (100 mg/ kg, p.o) potentiated the anticonvulsant action of diphenylhydantoin. The test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po) showed 50% protection in clonic seizures and 24-hour mortality against PTZ induced seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly. Vitex-negundo potentiated anticonvulsant activity of valporic acid. The anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo has not been found equi-effective with standard drugs. These findings suggest that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity particularly against PTZ induced convulsions. Moreover, the potentiation of diphenylhydantoin and valporic acid by Vitex-negundo indicates that it may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of diphenylhydantoin and valporic acid.

Publication Types: PMID: 16170989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract.

Gupta RK, Tandon VR.

Department of Pharmacology, M.G.I.M.S. (Sevagram), Wardha 442 102.

Tail flick test in rats and acetic acid induced writhing in mice were employed to study the antinociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Vitex-negundo (VN) (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o). The effect was compared with meperidine (40 mg/kg, sc) in tail flick method and aspirin (50 mg/kg, p.o) in writhing test as a standard control respectively. An interaction with naloxone hydrochloride was also studied in tail flick method for its mechanism of central analgesic action. The test drug showed significant analgesic activity in dose dependant manner in both the experimental models. In comparison to standard drug (meperidine), more than ten times dose of VN extract was required to produce comparable significant antinociceptive activity. The sub-effective dose (5 mg/kg, po) of VN potentiated the analgesic activity of meperidine (4 mg/kg, sc) and aspirin (25 mg/kg, po). Naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) did not reverse the analgesic effect of VN extract. Our observations suggest that VN possesses both central and peripheral analgesic activity. The central analgesic action does not seem to be mediated through opioid receptors. It, may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy along with standard analgesic drug.

Publication Types:PMID: 16170984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. Effect of biopesticides on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

Nathan SS, Kalaivani K, Murugan K.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju City, Chonbuk 561 756, South Korea. senthilkalaidr@hotmail.com

The effects of bacterial toxins (Bacillus thuringiensis) and botanical insecticides (Azadirachta indica and Vitex negundo) on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (the rice leaffolder) were evaluated. Bacterial toxins and botanical insecticides affected the LDH activity individually and in combination. When they were combined, the effect was more severe at low concentration. There was a decrease in enzyme activity over controls at all concentrations tested. The combined effect of the three biopesticides resulted in a considerable decrease in enzyme activity, indicating strong enzyme inhibition. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity.

PMID: 16033698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. In vitro HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities of Thai medicinal plants and Canna indica L. rhizomes.

Woradulayapinij W, Soonthornchareonnon N, Wiwat C.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri Ayudthaya Road, Rajdhevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Water and 80% ethanol extracts of 20 Thai medicinal plants used to treat AIDS were tested for their HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. The water extracts of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (aerial parts), Vitex glabrata (branch), Vitex trifolia (aerial part), Vitex negundo (aerial part), Canna indica (rhizome), and Justicia gendarussa (aerial part) showed HIV-1 RT inhibition ratio (% IR) higher than 90% at a 200 microg/ml concentration. The water extract of Canna indica rhizomes (IC(50) 22.56 microg/ml) was selected for further study, i.e. for its HIV-1 RT inhibition activity and the purification and characterization of the active proteins. Proteins in water extract were fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), yielding two proteins, Cip31 (31 kDa) and Cip14 (14 kDa) with IC50 of 17.41 and 19.25 microg/ml and isoelectric point (pI) of 3.5 and 6.35, respectively. Both proteins showed significant HIV-1 RT inhibition.

Publication Types: PMID: 15951145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Lignan derivatives and a norditerpene from the seeds of Vitex negundo.

Ono M, Nishida Y, Masuoka C, Li JC, Okawa M, Ikeda T, Nohara T.

School of Agriculture, Kyushu Tokai University, Choyo 5435, Aso, Kumamoto 869-1404, Japan. mono@ktmail.ktokai-u.ac.jp

A new phenyldihydronaphthalene-type lignan, vitedoin A (1), a new phenylnaphthalene-type lignan alkaloid, vitedoamine A (2), and a new trinorlabdane-type diterpene, vitedoin B (3), were isolated from the seeds of Vitex negundo along with five known lignan derivatives (4-8). Their chemical structures were determined mainly on the basis of NMR and MS data. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-7 showed stronger antioxidative activity than alpha-tocopherol using the ferric thiocyanate method. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-7 showed higher radical-scavenging effect on the stable free radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, than L-cysteine.

PMID: 15620254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Enzyme inhibiting lignans from Vitex negundo.

Azhar-Ul-Haq, Malik A, Anis I, Khan SB, Ahmed E, Ahmed Z, Nawaz SA, Choudhary MI.

International Centre for Chemical Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Two new lignans trivially named negundins A (1) and B (2), were isolated along with (+)-diasyringaresinol (3), (+)-lyoniresinol (4), vitrofolal E (5) and vitrofolal F (6), reported for the first time from this species. The structures of the new compounds were established through spectral studies. Compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase enzyme, while 5 showed moderate activity against butyryl-cholinesterase.

Publication Types:PMID: 15520511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India. gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

Publication Types: PMID: 15383230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Reproduction in male rats is vulnerable to treatment with the flavonoid-rich seed extracts of Vitex negundo.

Das S, Parveen S, Kundra CP, Pereira BM.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee - 247 667, Uttaranchal, India.

A partially purified flavonoid-rich extract was prepared from the seed of Vitex negundo. The effect of this extract on the reproductive system of male rats was investigated at four different concentrations. All the major accessory sex organs shed weight when the preparation was administered at doses of >or=15 mg/rat/day after 15 days of treatment. The drop in weight was also reflected in disturbed tissue biochemistry. Secretory products such as citric acid in the prostate, fructose in seminal vesicles and epididymal alpha-glucosidase activity, indices of accessory sex organ function in males, diminished. Microscopic examination of the sperm derived from the cauda epididymides of treated animals showed only a marginal change in vitality. However, sperm numbers dwindled and slackness in their motility was observed, factors that may impede fertility. Toxicity testing in blood did not point to distress in any of the vital organs. Taken together, it is inferred that the seed extracts of V. negundo interfere with male reproductive function without producing adverse toxicity in other vital organs. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 14750193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo.

Dharmasiri MG, Jayakody JR, Galhena G, Liyanage SS, Ratnasooriya WD.

Department of Zoology, University of Colombo, 3, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

This study confirmed the oral anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihistamine properties of mature fresh leaves (MFL) of Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) claimed in the Ayurveda medicine by orally treating a water extract of the leaves to rats. The early phase (2h) of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema was significantly (P<0.01) suppressed in an inversely does-dependent (r(2)=1, P<0.01) manner by MFL. The EC(50) was 2g/kg of MFL. In the formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema test, the 2.5 and 5g/kg leaves significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the inflammation on days 4-6 of the test. In the hot plate test, 2.5 and 5g/kg of MFL showed a significant (P<0.05) and directly dose-dependent analgesic activity at 1h of treatment while the activity was absent in the tail flick test in rats. The EC(50) for the analgesic activity was 4.1g/kg. In the formalin test, 1.25, 2.5 and 5g/kg of MFL significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the pain in both the phases of the test like aspirin. The leaves showed an inversely dose-dependent in vivo antihistamine and in vitro prostaglandin (PG) synthesis inhibition, membrane stabilising and antioxidant activities. Naloxone did not abolish the analgesic activity in the hot plate test. A 5g/kg of MFL did not impair muscle strength and co-ordination and did not induce sedation. The treatment of 5g/kg of MFL did not show signs of acute toxicity or stress. Fourteen-day oral treatment of 5g/kg of MFL significantly increased the serum activity of AST. Flowering of the tree did not abolish the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaves. These observations revealed that the fresh leaves of Vitex negundo have anti-inflammatory and pain suppressing activities possibly mediated via PG synthesis inhibition, antihistamine, membrane stabilising and antioxidant activities. The antihistamine activity can produce the anti-itching effect claimed in Ayurveda medicine.

PMID: 12860308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Cytotoxic flavone analogues of vitexicarpin, a constituent of the leaves of Vitex negundo.

Díaz F, Chávez D, Lee D, Mi Q, Chai HB, Tan GT, Kardono LB, Riswan S, Fairchild CR, Wild R, Farnsworth NR, Cordell GA, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD.

Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform-soluble extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo led to the isolation of the known flavone vitexicarpin (1), which exhibited broad cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line panel. In an attempt to increase the cytotoxic potency of 1, a series of acylation reactions was performed on this compound to obtain its methylated (2), acetylated (3), and six new acylated (4-9) derivatives. Compound 9, the previously unreported 5,3'-dihexanoyloxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, showed comparative cytotoxic potency to compound 1 and was selected for further evaluation. However, this compound was found to be inactive when evaluated in the in vivo hollow fiber assay with Lu1, KB, and LNCaP cells at the highest dose (40 mg/kg/body weight) tested, and in the in vivo P-388 leukemia model (135 mg/kg), using the ip administration route.

Publication Types: PMID: 12828478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

Alam MI, Gomes A.

Department of Physiology, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu 180006, India. iqbalasc@yahoo.com

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

Publication Types:PMID: 12686445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36. The Great Wall of China: a physical barrier to gene flow?

Su H, Qu LJ, He K, Zhang Z, Wang J, Chen Z, Gu H.

National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

One population from each of six plant species along both sides of the Juyong-guan Great Wall, together with one population from each of five species along both sides of a path on a mountain top near Juyong-guan, were selected to study the effect of the Great Wall as a barrier on genetic differentiation between two subpopulations using RAPD markers. Significant genetic differentiation was found between the subpopulations on both sides of the Great Wall. A wind-pollinated woody species, Ulmus pumila, showed less genetic differentiation than four insect-pollinated species: Prunus armeniaca, Ziziphus jujuba, Vitex negundo, and Heteropappus hispidus. Cleistogenes caespitosa, a wind-pollinated perennial herb, displayed more genetic differentiation between subpopulations than the insect-pollinated species because of its propagation strategy. Although AMOVA analysis showed that subpopulations divided by a mountain path had diverged genetically, the variance component between the subpopulations on both sides of the Great Wall was significantly larger than that between the subpopulations at the control site. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the Juyong-guan Great Wall has served as a physical barrier to gene flow between subpopulations separated for more than 600 years.

Publication Types: PMID: 12634804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37. Isolation, characterization and biological activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid from Vitex negundo L.

Chandramu C, Manohar RD, Krupadanam DG, Dashavantha RV.

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. dmanoharrao@yahoo.com

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids, betulinic acid (3beta-hydroxylup-20-(29)-en-28-oic acid) (3), and ursolic acid (2beta-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid) (4), were isolated for the first time from leaves of Vitex negundo L. along with three other compounds; an aliphatic alcohol n-hentriacontanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5). Their antifeedant activity against the larvae of an agricultural pest, the castor semilooper (Achoea janata), in a no-choice laboratory assay and their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, by the paper disc method, were tested. Ursolic acid (4) showed more effective antifeedant activity than the betulinic acid (3). However, both these compounds have shown a very mild antibacterial activity. The other three compounds; n-hentriacontanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5) have shown a little antifeedant activity against the larvae and did not show any antibacterial activity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 12601674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of asthma with juanxiao tablet]

[Article in Chinese]

Hong G, Zhang Y, Huang J.

Jiangxi College of TCM, Nanchang (330006).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Juanxiao Tablet (JXT) in treating asthma. METHODS: Clinical observation on 447 cases of asthma was done by double- or single-blind control method, and the therapeutic effect and safety of JXT were analysed. The effect of JXT in antiasthma, expectorant, antisepsis, hypoxia tolerance was studied, and its acute and chronic toxicity also examined. RESULTS: The clinical control rate in patients treated with JXT was 38.2%, its markedly effective rate 31.2% and total effective rate 93.4%, while in patients treated with Oleum Vitex Negundo, the respective data were 13.3%, 20.0% and 68.5%. Results of pulmonary function and IgE measurement were consistent with clinical effect. Experimental study showed that the JXT has the action of anti-asthma, expectorant, antisepsis and hypoxia tolerance enhancement, its LD50 was (40.48 +/- 5.17) g/kg. CONCLUSION: JXT is a new Chinese herbal preparation of good effect, less toxic-side reaction for asthma treatment.

Publication Types: PMID: 11783305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39. [Stable carbon isotope characteristics of some woody plants in warm temperate zone]

[Article in Chinese]

Han X, Yan C, Chen L, Mei X.

Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093.

It was found that the delta 13C values of the foliar, trunk, flower, and fruit of some woody plants in broad-leaved forest in warm temperate zone were affected by many factors, and showed a great interspecific difference and temporal and spatial heterogeneity. The intraspecific variation of delta 13C values was also great, with the order of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla 6.549@1000(-22.226@1000(-)-28.775@1000), Fraxinus rhynchophylla 5.706@1000(-23.687@1000(-)-29.393@1000), Jugans mandshurica 5.229@1000 (-26.146@1000-31.375@1000), Quercus liaotungensis 3.333@1000 (-24.324@1000(-)-27.657@1000), Syringa pekinensis 2.414@1000(-25.655@1000(-)-28.070@1000), and Prunus armeniaca var. ansu 2.296@1000 (-23.436@1000(-)-26.432@1000). Different organs of the same species had different delta 13C values: trunk and root barks had the low, while xylem had the highest delta 13C value. According to the relationship analysis between delta 13C value of Prunus armeniaca var. ansu xylem and environment factors, it was found that delta 13C value was strongly affected by annual mean temperature and followed by annual precipitation, mean temperature and precipitation in growth season.

Publication Types: PMID: 11767664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative effects of some plant extracts used by Sri Lankan traditional medical practitioners for cardioprotection.

J Munasinghe TC, Seneviratne CK, Thabrew MI, Abeysekera AM.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a) in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3 microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7 microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage protection assay, T. arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125 microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. arjuna, cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/- 3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via antioxidant activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 11536382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41. Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake).

Raja N, Albert S, Ignacimuthu S.

Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India.

Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo L. and Cassia fistula L. leaves (0.5 and 1%) was studied on egg laying and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and on percentage of larval parasitism by Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Cowpea seeds treated with methanol and aqueous extract of Vitex, at these concentrations (0.5 and 1%), significantly reduced the number of eggs and emergence of F1 adults of C. maculatus. Both Vitex and Cassia extracts did not affect the percentage of parasitism by D. vagabundus on C. maculatus grubs.

Publication TypesPMID: 10927878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice.

Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Bhawal SR.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India.

Methanolic extract (ME) of the leaves of V. negundo potentiated significantly the sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam and chlorpromazine in mice. ME possesses analgesic properties and potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine. ME also showed significant protection against strychnine and leptazole induced convulsions. The results suggest that ME exhibits CNS depressant activity in a dose dependent manner.

PMID: 10641133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.

Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A.

Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India.

A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs.

Publication Types: PMID: 9741889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ.

Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal, India.

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease.

Publication Types: PMID: 9022263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45. Larvicidal activity of a few plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi.

Pushpalatha E, Muthukrishnan J.

Chemical Ecology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamraj University, India.

Larvicidal activity of partially purified extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo, Nerium oleander and seeds of Syzygium jambolanum on different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi was estimated. Petroleum ether (PE): Ethyl acetate (EA) 3:1 fraction of V. negundo, 1:1 fractions of N. oleander and S. jambolanum inflicted considerable larval mortality and interfered with pupal-adult metamorphosis. At very low concentration the active fractions of these plant extracts extended the duration of the various larval instars and of pupation. In general, I and II instar larvae were more susceptible to the active fractions. Species and stage specific differences in the susceptibility of the mosquitoes to the active fractions of the plant extracts were observed.

Publication Types: PMID: 8549835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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